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#[cfg(test)]
mod tests;

use crate::borrow::{Borrow, Cow};
use crate::cmp;
use crate::fmt;
use crate::hash::{Hash, Hasher};
use crate::iter::{Extend, FromIterator};
use crate::ops;
use crate::rc::Rc;
use crate::str::FromStr;
use crate::sync::Arc;

use crate::sys::os_str::{Buf, Slice};
use crate::sys_common::{AsInner, FromInner, IntoInner};

/// 一种类型,可以表示拥有的,可变的平台原生字符串,但可以廉价地与 Rust 字符串互转换。
///
/// 对这种类型的需求源于以下事实:
///
/// * 在 Unix 系统上,字符串通常是非零字节的任意序列,在许多情况下解释为 UTF-8。
///
/// * 在 Windows 上,字符串通常是非零的 16 位值的任意序列,如果有效,则将其解释为 UTF-16。
///
/// * 在 Rust 中,字符串始终是有效的 UTF-8,其中可能包含零。
///
/// `OsString` 和 [`OsStr`] 通过同时表示 Rust 和平台原生字符串值来弥合这一差距,特别是允许 Rust 字符串在可能的情况下免费转换为 "OS" 字符串。
/// 这样的结果是 `OsString` 实例不是 * `NUL` 终止的; 为了传递给例如 Unix 系统调用,您应该创建一个 [`CStr`]。
///
/// `OsString` 到 <code>&[OsStr]</code> 如同 [`String`] 到 <code>&[str]</code>: 每对中的前一个都是拥有所有权的字符串; 后者是借用的。
///
/// 注意,`OsString` 和 [`OsStr`] 在内部不一定要以平台固有的形式保存字符串。在 Unix 上,字符串被存储为 8 位值的序列,在 Windows 上,字符串是基于 16 位值的,正如刚才所讨论的,字符串实际上也被存储为 8 位值的序列,用一种不太严格的 UTF-8 变体编码。
///
/// 这对于理解处理容量和长度值时很有用。
///
/// # 创建一个 `OsString`
///
/// **来自 Rust 字符串**: `OsString` 实现了 <code>[From]<[String]></code>,因此您可以使用 <code>my_string.[into]\()</code> 从普通 Rust 字符串创建 `OsString`。
///
/// **从切片: **就像您可以从一个空的 Rust [`String`] 开始,然后用 [`String::push_str`] 将一些 <code>&[str]</code> 子字符串切片放入其中一样,您也可以使用 [`OsString::new`] 方法创建一个空的 `OsString`,然后使用 [`OsString::push`] 方法将字符串切片推入其中。
///
/// # 提取整个操作系统字符串中的借用引用
///
/// 您可以使用 [`OsString::as_os_str`] 方法从 `OsString` 获取 <code>&[OsStr]</code> ; 这实际上是对整个字符串的借用引用。
///
/// # Conversions
///
/// 请参见模块中关于 [转换][conversions] 的顶级文档,以讨论为 `OsString` from/to 原生表示形式的 [转换][conversions] 而实现的特征。
///
/// [`CStr`]: crate::ffi::CStr
/// [conversions]: super#conversions
/// [into]: Into::into
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
#[cfg_attr(not(test), rustc_diagnostic_item = "OsString")]
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct OsString {
    inner: Buf,
}

/// 允许在 `std` 内扩展 traits。
#[unstable(feature = "sealed", issue = "none")]
impl crate::sealed::Sealed for OsString {}

/// 借用引用到 OS 字符串 (请参见 [`OsString`])。
///
/// 此类型表示操作系统首选表示形式中字符串的借用引用。
///
/// `&OsStr` 对 [`OsString`] 如同 <code>&[str]</code> 对 [`String`]: 每对中的前一个都是借用的引用; 后者是拥有的字符串。
///
/// 请参见模块中关于 [转换][conversions] 的顶级文档,以讨论为 `OsStr` from/to 原生表示形式的 [转换][conversions] 而实现的特征。。
///
///
/// [conversions]: super#conversions
///
///
#[cfg_attr(not(test), rustc_diagnostic_item = "OsStr")]
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
// FIXME:
// `OsStr::from_inner` 当前的实现依赖于与 `OsStr` 与 `Slice` 的布局兼容。
// 实现属性隐私时,应将 `OsStr` 注解为 `#[repr(transparent)]`。
// 无论如何,`OsStr` 表示形式和布局被视为实现细节,没有文档记录,因此不能依赖。
//
//
pub struct OsStr {
    inner: Slice,
}

/// 允许在 `std` 内扩展 traits。
#[unstable(feature = "sealed", issue = "none")]
impl crate::sealed::Sealed for OsStr {}

impl OsString {
    /// 创建一个新的空 `OsString`。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let os_string = OsString::new();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn new() -> OsString {
        OsString { inner: Buf::from_string(String::new()) }
    }

    /// 转换为 [`OsStr`] 切片。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::{OsString, OsStr};
    ///
    /// let os_string = OsString::from("foo");
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("foo");
    /// assert_eq!(os_string.as_os_str(), os_str);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn as_os_str(&self) -> &OsStr {
        self
    }

    /// 如果 `OsString` 包含有效的 Unicode 数据,则将其转换为 [`String`]。
    ///
    /// 失败时,将返回原始 `OsString` 的所有权。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let os_string = OsString::from("foo");
    /// let string = os_string.into_string();
    /// assert_eq!(string, Ok(String::from("foo")));
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn into_string(self) -> Result<String, OsString> {
        self.inner.into_string().map_err(|buf| OsString { inner: buf })
    }

    /// 用给定的 <code>&[OsStr]</code> 切片扩展字符串。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut os_string = OsString::from("foo");
    /// os_string.push("bar");
    /// assert_eq!(&os_string, "foobar");
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn push<T: AsRef<OsStr>>(&mut self, s: T) {
        self.inner.push_slice(&s.as_ref().inner)
    }

    /// 创建具有给定容量的新 `OsString`。
    ///
    /// 该字符串将能够完全容纳其他 OS 字符串的 `capacity` 长度单位,而无需重新分配。
    /// 如果 `capacity` 为 0,则不会分配该字符串。
    ///
    /// 请参见有关编码的主要 `OsString` 文档信息。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut os_string = OsString::with_capacity(10);
    /// let capacity = os_string.capacity();
    ///
    /// // 无需重新分配即可完成此推送
    /// os_string.push("foo");
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(capacity, os_string.capacity());
    /// ```
    ///
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn with_capacity(capacity: usize) -> OsString {
        OsString { inner: Buf::with_capacity(capacity) }
    }

    /// 将 `OsString` 截断为零长度。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut os_string = OsString::from("foo");
    /// assert_eq!(&os_string, "foo");
    ///
    /// os_string.clear();
    /// assert_eq!(&os_string, "");
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn clear(&mut self) {
        self.inner.clear()
    }

    /// 返回此 `OsString` 无需重新分配即可容纳的容量。
    ///
    /// 有关编码的信息,请参见 `OsString` 简介。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let os_string = OsString::with_capacity(10);
    /// assert!(os_string.capacity() >= 10);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn capacity(&self) -> usize {
        self.inner.capacity()
    }

    /// 为给定的 `OsString` 插入至少至少 `additional` 的容量保留容量。
    ///
    ///
    /// 该集合可以保留更多空间,以避免频繁的重新分配。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut s = OsString::new();
    /// s.reserve(10);
    /// assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn reserve(&mut self, additional: usize) {
        self.inner.reserve(additional)
    }

    /// 保留最小容量,以便将 `additional` 精确地插入给定的 `OsString` 中。
    ///
    /// 如果容量已经足够,则不执行任何操作。
    ///
    /// 请注意,分配器可能会给集合提供比其请求更多的空间。
    /// 因此,不能依靠容量来精确地最小化。
    /// 如果预计将来会插入,则最好使用 [`reserve`]。
    ///
    /// [`reserve`]: OsString::reserve
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut s = OsString::new();
    /// s.reserve_exact(10);
    /// assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn reserve_exact(&mut self, additional: usize) {
        self.inner.reserve_exact(additional)
    }

    /// 缩小 `OsString` 的容量以使其长度匹配。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut s = OsString::from("foo");
    ///
    /// s.reserve(100);
    /// assert!(s.capacity() >= 100);
    ///
    /// s.shrink_to_fit();
    /// assert_eq!(3, s.capacity());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_shrink_to_fit", since = "1.19.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn shrink_to_fit(&mut self) {
        self.inner.shrink_to_fit()
    }

    /// 降低 `OsString` 的容量。
    ///
    /// 容量将至少保持与长度和提供的值一样大。
    ///
    ///
    /// 如果当前容量小于下限,则为无操作。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut s = OsString::from("foo");
    ///
    /// s.reserve(100);
    /// assert!(s.capacity() >= 100);
    ///
    /// s.shrink_to(10);
    /// assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);
    /// s.shrink_to(0);
    /// assert!(s.capacity() >= 3);
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "shrink_to", since = "1.56.0")]
    pub fn shrink_to(&mut self, min_capacity: usize) {
        self.inner.shrink_to(min_capacity)
    }

    /// 将此 `OsString` 转换为 boxed [`OsStr`]。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::{OsString, OsStr};
    ///
    /// let s = OsString::from("hello");
    ///
    /// let b: Box<OsStr> = s.into_boxed_os_str();
    /// ```
    #[must_use = "`self` will be dropped if the result is not used"]
    #[stable(feature = "into_boxed_os_str", since = "1.20.0")]
    pub fn into_boxed_os_str(self) -> Box<OsStr> {
        let rw = Box::into_raw(self.inner.into_box()) as *mut OsStr;
        unsafe { Box::from_raw(rw) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl From<String> for OsString {
    /// 将 [`String`] 转换为 [`OsString`]。
    ///
    /// 此转换不会分配或复制内存。
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: String) -> OsString {
        OsString { inner: Buf::from_string(s) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized + AsRef<OsStr>> From<&T> for OsString {
    fn from(s: &T) -> OsString {
        s.as_ref().to_os_string()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl ops::Index<ops::RangeFull> for OsString {
    type Output = OsStr;

    #[inline]
    fn index(&self, _index: ops::RangeFull) -> &OsStr {
        OsStr::from_inner(self.inner.as_slice())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "mut_osstr", since = "1.44.0")]
impl ops::IndexMut<ops::RangeFull> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn index_mut(&mut self, _index: ops::RangeFull) -> &mut OsStr {
        OsStr::from_inner_mut(self.inner.as_mut_slice())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl ops::Deref for OsString {
    type Target = OsStr;

    #[inline]
    fn deref(&self) -> &OsStr {
        &self[..]
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "mut_osstr", since = "1.44.0")]
impl ops::DerefMut for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut OsStr {
        &mut self[..]
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_default", since = "1.9.0")]
impl Default for OsString {
    /// 创建一个空的 `OsString`。
    #[inline]
    fn default() -> OsString {
        OsString::new()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Clone for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        OsString { inner: self.inner.clone() }
    }

    #[inline]
    fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self) {
        self.inner.clone_from(&source.inner)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl fmt::Debug for OsString {
    fn fmt(&self, formatter: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        fmt::Debug::fmt(&**self, formatter)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialEq for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        &**self == &**other
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialEq<str> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &str) -> bool {
        &**self == other
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialEq<OsString> for str {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        &**other == self
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "os_str_str_ref_eq", since = "1.29.0")]
impl PartialEq<&str> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &&str) -> bool {
        **self == **other
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "os_str_str_ref_eq", since = "1.29.0")]
impl<'a> PartialEq<OsString> for &'a str {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        **other == **self
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Eq for OsString {}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialOrd for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &OsString) -> Option<cmp::Ordering> {
        (&**self).partial_cmp(&**other)
    }
    #[inline]
    fn lt(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        &**self < &**other
    }
    #[inline]
    fn le(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        &**self <= &**other
    }
    #[inline]
    fn gt(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        &**self > &**other
    }
    #[inline]
    fn ge(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool {
        &**self >= &**other
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialOrd<str> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &str) -> Option<cmp::Ordering> {
        (&**self).partial_cmp(other)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Ord for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn cmp(&self, other: &OsString) -> cmp::Ordering {
        (&**self).cmp(&**other)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Hash for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn hash<H: Hasher>(&self, state: &mut H) {
        (&**self).hash(state)
    }
}

impl OsStr {
    /// 强制转换为 `OsStr` 切片。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsStr;
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("foo");
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn new<S: AsRef<OsStr> + ?Sized>(s: &S) -> &OsStr {
        s.as_ref()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn from_inner(inner: &Slice) -> &OsStr {
        // SAFETY: OsStr 只是切片的包装,因此将 &Slice 转换为 &OsStr 是安全的。
        //
        unsafe { &*(inner as *const Slice as *const OsStr) }
    }

    #[inline]
    fn from_inner_mut(inner: &mut Slice) -> &mut OsStr {
        // SAFETY: OsStr 只是切片的包装,因此将 &mut 切片转换为 &mut OsStr 是安全的。
        // 更改 OsStr 的任何方法都必须小心,不要破坏平台特定的编码,尤其是 Windows 上的 Wtf8。
        //
        //
        unsafe { &mut *(inner as *mut Slice as *mut OsStr) }
    }

    /// 如果 `OsStr` 是有效的 Unicode,则产生 <code>&[str]</code>。
    ///
    /// 此转换可能需要检查 UTF-8 有效性。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsStr;
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("foo");
    /// assert_eq!(os_str.to_str(), Some("foo"));
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[must_use = "this returns the result of the operation, \
                  without modifying the original"]
    #[inline]
    pub fn to_str(&self) -> Option<&str> {
        self.inner.to_str()
    }

    /// 将 `OsStr` 转换为 <code>[Cow]<[str]></code>。
    ///
    /// 任何非 Unicode 序列都将替换为 [`U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER`][U+FFFD]。
    ///
    ///
    /// [U+FFFD]: crate::char::REPLACEMENT_CHARACTER
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// 使用无效的 Unicode 在 `OsStr` 上调用 `to_string_lossy`:
    ///
    /// ```
    /// // 注意,由于 Unix 和 Windows 表示字符串的方式不同,我们不得不使该示例复杂化,使用不同的源数据和通过不同的平台扩展来设置示例 `OsStr`。
    /////
    /// // 可以理解,实际上,仅通过收集用户命令行参数,您就可以得到这样的示例无效序列。
    /////
    /////
    /////
    ///
    /// #[cfg(unix)] {
    ///     use std::ffi::OsStr;
    ///     use std::os::unix::ffi::OsStrExt;
    ///
    ///     // 此处,值 0x66 和 0x6f 分别对应于 'f' 和 'o'。
    ///     // 值 0x80 是一个单独的连续字节,在 UTF-8 序列中无效。
    /////
    ///     let source = [0x66, 0x6f, 0x80, 0x6f];
    ///     let os_str = OsStr::from_bytes(&source[..]);
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(os_str.to_string_lossy(), "fo�o");
    /// }
    /// #[cfg(windows)] {
    ///     use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///     use std::os::windows::prelude::*;
    ///
    ///     // 在此,值 0x0066 和 0x006f 分别对应于 'f' 和 'o'。
    ///     // 值 0xD800 是一个单独的替代一半,在 UTF-16 序列中无效。
    /////
    ///     let source = [0x0066, 0x006f, 0xD800, 0x006f];
    ///     let os_string = OsString::from_wide(&source[..]);
    ///     let os_str = os_string.as_os_str();
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(os_str.to_string_lossy(), "fo�o");
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[must_use = "this returns the result of the operation, \
                  without modifying the original"]
    #[inline]
    pub fn to_string_lossy(&self) -> Cow<'_, str> {
        self.inner.to_string_lossy()
    }

    /// 将切片复制到拥有的 [`OsString`] 中。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::{OsStr, OsString};
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("foo");
    /// let os_string = os_str.to_os_string();
    /// assert_eq!(os_string, OsString::from("foo"));
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[must_use = "this returns the result of the operation, \
                  without modifying the original"]
    #[inline]
    pub fn to_os_string(&self) -> OsString {
        OsString { inner: self.inner.to_owned() }
    }

    /// 检查 `OsStr` 是否为空。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsStr;
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("");
    /// assert!(os_str.is_empty());
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("foo");
    /// assert!(!os_str.is_empty());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
        self.inner.inner.is_empty()
    }

    /// 返回此 `OsStr` 的长度。
    ///
    /// 请注意,这不会以 OS 字符串形式返回字符串中的字节数。
    ///
    /// 返回的长度是 `OsStr` 使用的底层存储的长度。
    /// 如 [`OsString`] 简介中所讨论的,[`OsString`] 和 `OsStr` 以最适合于原生平台和 Rust 字符串形式之间的廉价相互转换的形式存储字符串,这两种形式在存储大小和编码方面可能都大不相同。
    ///
    ///
    /// 此数字对于传递给其他方法 (例如 [`OsString::with_capacity`]) 以避免重新分配非常有用。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsStr;
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("");
    /// assert_eq!(os_str.len(), 0);
    ///
    /// let os_str = OsStr::new("foo");
    /// assert_eq!(os_str.len(), 3);
    /// ```
    ///
    ///
    ///
    ///
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_simple_functions", since = "1.9.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn len(&self) -> usize {
        self.inner.inner.len()
    }

    /// 将 <code>[Box]<[OsStr]></code> 转换为 [`OsString`],而无需复制或分配。
    #[stable(feature = "into_boxed_os_str", since = "1.20.0")]
    #[must_use = "`self` will be dropped if the result is not used"]
    pub fn into_os_string(self: Box<OsStr>) -> OsString {
        let boxed = unsafe { Box::from_raw(Box::into_raw(self) as *mut Slice) };
        OsString { inner: Buf::from_box(boxed) }
    }

    /// 获取底层的字节表示形式。
    ///
    /// Note: 至关重要的是,此 API 不应在外部公开,以避免泄露内部的,平台特定的编码。
    ///
    #[inline]
    pub(crate) fn bytes(&self) -> &[u8] {
        unsafe { &*(&self.inner as *const _ as *const [u8]) }
    }

    /// 将此字符串就地转换为其 ASCII 小写等效项。
    ///
    /// ASCII 字母 'A' 到 'Z' 映射到 'a' 到 'z',但是非 ASCII 字母不变。
    ///
    /// 要返回新的小写值而不修改现有值,请使用 [`OsStr::to_ascii_lowercase`]。
    ///
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut s = OsString::from("GRÜßE, JÜRGEN ❤");
    ///
    /// s.make_ascii_lowercase();
    ///
    /// assert_eq!("grÜße, jÜrgen ❤", s);
    /// ```
    ///
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_ascii", since = "1.53.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn make_ascii_lowercase(&mut self) {
        self.inner.make_ascii_lowercase()
    }

    /// 将此字符串就地转换为其 ASCII 大写等效项。
    ///
    /// ASCII 字母 'a' 到 'z' 映射到 'A' 到 'Z',但是非 ASCII 字母不变。
    ///
    /// 要返回新的大写值而不修改现有值,请使用 [`OsStr::to_ascii_uppercase`]。
    ///
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let mut s = OsString::from("Grüße, Jürgen ❤");
    ///
    /// s.make_ascii_uppercase();
    ///
    /// assert_eq!("GRüßE, JüRGEN ❤", s);
    /// ```
    ///
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_ascii", since = "1.53.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn make_ascii_uppercase(&mut self) {
        self.inner.make_ascii_uppercase()
    }

    /// 返回此字符串的副本,其中每个字符都映射为其等效的 ASCII 小写字母。
    ///
    ///
    /// ASCII 字母 'A' 到 'Z' 映射到 'a' 到 'z',但是非 ASCII 字母不变。
    ///
    /// 要就地小写该值,请使用 [`OsStr::make_ascii_lowercase`]。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    /// let s = OsString::from("Grüße, Jürgen ❤");
    ///
    /// assert_eq!("grüße, jürgen ❤", s.to_ascii_lowercase());
    /// ```
    ///
    #[must_use = "to lowercase the value in-place, use `make_ascii_lowercase`"]
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_ascii", since = "1.53.0")]
    pub fn to_ascii_lowercase(&self) -> OsString {
        OsString::from_inner(self.inner.to_ascii_lowercase())
    }

    /// 返回此字符串的副本,其中每个字符都映射为其等效的 ASCII 大写字母。
    ///
    ///
    /// ASCII 字母 'a' 到 'z' 映射到 'A' 到 'Z',但是非 ASCII 字母不变。
    ///
    /// 要就地将值大写,请使用 [`OsStr::make_ascii_uppercase`]。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    /// let s = OsString::from("Grüße, Jürgen ❤");
    ///
    /// assert_eq!("GRüßE, JüRGEN ❤", s.to_ascii_uppercase());
    /// ```
    ///
    #[must_use = "to uppercase the value in-place, use `make_ascii_uppercase`"]
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_ascii", since = "1.53.0")]
    pub fn to_ascii_uppercase(&self) -> OsString {
        OsString::from_inner(self.inner.to_ascii_uppercase())
    }

    /// 检查此字符串中的所有字符是否都在 ASCII 范围内。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// let ascii = OsString::from("hello!\n");
    /// let non_ascii = OsString::from("Grüße, Jürgen ❤");
    ///
    /// assert!(ascii.is_ascii());
    /// assert!(!non_ascii.is_ascii());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_ascii", since = "1.53.0")]
    #[must_use]
    #[inline]
    pub fn is_ascii(&self) -> bool {
        self.inner.is_ascii()
    }

    /// 检查两个字符串是否为 ASCII 不区分大小写的匹配项。
    ///
    /// 与 `to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b)` 相同,但不分配和复制临时文件。
    ///
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::ffi::OsString;
    ///
    /// assert!(OsString::from("Ferris").eq_ignore_ascii_case("FERRIS"));
    /// assert!(OsString::from("Ferrös").eq_ignore_ascii_case("FERRöS"));
    /// assert!(!OsString::from("Ferrös").eq_ignore_ascii_case("FERRÖS"));
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "osstring_ascii", since = "1.53.0")]
    pub fn eq_ignore_ascii_case<S: AsRef<OsStr>>(&self, other: S) -> bool {
        self.inner.eq_ignore_ascii_case(&other.as_ref().inner)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "box_from_os_str", since = "1.17.0")]
impl From<&OsStr> for Box<OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: &OsStr) -> Box<OsStr> {
        let rw = Box::into_raw(s.inner.into_box()) as *mut OsStr;
        unsafe { Box::from_raw(rw) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "box_from_cow", since = "1.45.0")]
impl From<Cow<'_, OsStr>> for Box<OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(cow: Cow<'_, OsStr>) -> Box<OsStr> {
        match cow {
            Cow::Borrowed(s) => Box::from(s),
            Cow::Owned(s) => Box::from(s),
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "os_string_from_box", since = "1.18.0")]
impl From<Box<OsStr>> for OsString {
    /// 将 <code>[Box]<[OsStr]></code> 转换为 [`OsString`],而无需复制或分配。
    ///
    #[inline]
    fn from(boxed: Box<OsStr>) -> OsString {
        boxed.into_os_string()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "box_from_os_string", since = "1.20.0")]
impl From<OsString> for Box<OsStr> {
    /// 将 [`OsString`] 转换为 <code>[Box]<[OsStr]></code>,而无需复制或分配。
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: OsString) -> Box<OsStr> {
        s.into_boxed_os_str()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "more_box_slice_clone", since = "1.29.0")]
impl Clone for Box<OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        self.to_os_string().into_boxed_os_str()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "shared_from_slice2", since = "1.24.0")]
impl From<OsString> for Arc<OsStr> {
    /// 将 [`OsString`] 转换为 <code>[Arc]<[OsStr]></code>,而无需复制或分配。
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: OsString) -> Arc<OsStr> {
        let arc = s.inner.into_arc();
        unsafe { Arc::from_raw(Arc::into_raw(arc) as *const OsStr) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "shared_from_slice2", since = "1.24.0")]
impl From<&OsStr> for Arc<OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: &OsStr) -> Arc<OsStr> {
        let arc = s.inner.into_arc();
        unsafe { Arc::from_raw(Arc::into_raw(arc) as *const OsStr) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "shared_from_slice2", since = "1.24.0")]
impl From<OsString> for Rc<OsStr> {
    /// 将 [`OsString`] 转换为 <code>[Rc]<[OsStr]></code>,而无需复制或分配。
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: OsString) -> Rc<OsStr> {
        let rc = s.inner.into_rc();
        unsafe { Rc::from_raw(Rc::into_raw(rc) as *const OsStr) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "shared_from_slice2", since = "1.24.0")]
impl From<&OsStr> for Rc<OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: &OsStr) -> Rc<OsStr> {
        let rc = s.inner.into_rc();
        unsafe { Rc::from_raw(Rc::into_raw(rc) as *const OsStr) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cow_from_osstr", since = "1.28.0")]
impl<'a> From<OsString> for Cow<'a, OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: OsString) -> Cow<'a, OsStr> {
        Cow::Owned(s)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cow_from_osstr", since = "1.28.0")]
impl<'a> From<&'a OsStr> for Cow<'a, OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: &'a OsStr) -> Cow<'a, OsStr> {
        Cow::Borrowed(s)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cow_from_osstr", since = "1.28.0")]
impl<'a> From<&'a OsString> for Cow<'a, OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: &'a OsString) -> Cow<'a, OsStr> {
        Cow::Borrowed(s.as_os_str())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_from_cow_osstr", since = "1.28.0")]
impl<'a> From<Cow<'a, OsStr>> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn from(s: Cow<'a, OsStr>) -> Self {
        s.into_owned()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "box_default_extra", since = "1.17.0")]
impl Default for Box<OsStr> {
    #[inline]
    fn default() -> Box<OsStr> {
        let rw = Box::into_raw(Slice::empty_box()) as *mut OsStr;
        unsafe { Box::from_raw(rw) }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_default", since = "1.9.0")]
impl Default for &OsStr {
    /// 创建一个空的 `OsStr`。
    #[inline]
    fn default() -> Self {
        OsStr::new("")
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialEq for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool {
        self.bytes().eq(other.bytes())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialEq<str> for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &str) -> bool {
        *self == *OsStr::new(other)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialEq<OsStr> for str {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool {
        *other == *OsStr::new(self)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Eq for OsStr {}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialOrd for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &OsStr) -> Option<cmp::Ordering> {
        self.bytes().partial_cmp(other.bytes())
    }
    #[inline]
    fn lt(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool {
        self.bytes().lt(other.bytes())
    }
    #[inline]
    fn le(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool {
        self.bytes().le(other.bytes())
    }
    #[inline]
    fn gt(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool {
        self.bytes().gt(other.bytes())
    }
    #[inline]
    fn ge(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool {
        self.bytes().ge(other.bytes())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl PartialOrd<str> for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &str) -> Option<cmp::Ordering> {
        self.partial_cmp(OsStr::new(other))
    }
}

// FIXME (#19470): 在我们拥有更灵活的一致性规则之前,无法为 str 提供 PartialOrd<OsStr>。
//

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Ord for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn cmp(&self, other: &OsStr) -> cmp::Ordering {
        self.bytes().cmp(other.bytes())
    }
}

macro_rules! impl_cmp {
    ($lhs:ty, $rhs: ty) => {
        #[stable(feature = "cmp_os_str", since = "1.8.0")]
        impl<'a, 'b> PartialEq<$rhs> for $lhs {
            #[inline]
            fn eq(&self, other: &$rhs) -> bool {
                <OsStr as PartialEq>::eq(self, other)
            }
        }

        #[stable(feature = "cmp_os_str", since = "1.8.0")]
        impl<'a, 'b> PartialEq<$lhs> for $rhs {
            #[inline]
            fn eq(&self, other: &$lhs) -> bool {
                <OsStr as PartialEq>::eq(self, other)
            }
        }

        #[stable(feature = "cmp_os_str", since = "1.8.0")]
        impl<'a, 'b> PartialOrd<$rhs> for $lhs {
            #[inline]
            fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &$rhs) -> Option<cmp::Ordering> {
                <OsStr as PartialOrd>::partial_cmp(self, other)
            }
        }

        #[stable(feature = "cmp_os_str", since = "1.8.0")]
        impl<'a, 'b> PartialOrd<$lhs> for $rhs {
            #[inline]
            fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &$lhs) -> Option<cmp::Ordering> {
                <OsStr as PartialOrd>::partial_cmp(self, other)
            }
        }
    };
}

impl_cmp!(OsString, OsStr);
impl_cmp!(OsString, &'a OsStr);
impl_cmp!(Cow<'a, OsStr>, OsStr);
impl_cmp!(Cow<'a, OsStr>, &'b OsStr);
impl_cmp!(Cow<'a, OsStr>, OsString);

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Hash for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn hash<H: Hasher>(&self, state: &mut H) {
        self.bytes().hash(state)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl fmt::Debug for OsStr {
    fn fmt(&self, formatter: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        fmt::Debug::fmt(&self.inner, formatter)
    }
}

impl OsStr {
    pub(crate) fn display(&self, formatter: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        fmt::Display::fmt(&self.inner, formatter)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Borrow<OsStr> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn borrow(&self) -> &OsStr {
        &self[..]
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl ToOwned for OsStr {
    type Owned = OsString;
    #[inline]
    fn to_owned(&self) -> OsString {
        self.to_os_string()
    }
    #[inline]
    fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut OsString) {
        self.inner.clone_into(&mut target.inner)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl AsRef<OsStr> for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &OsStr {
        self
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl AsRef<OsStr> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &OsStr {
        self
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl AsRef<OsStr> for str {
    #[inline]
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &OsStr {
        OsStr::from_inner(Slice::from_str(self))
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl AsRef<OsStr> for String {
    #[inline]
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &OsStr {
        (&**self).as_ref()
    }
}

impl FromInner<Buf> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn from_inner(buf: Buf) -> OsString {
        OsString { inner: buf }
    }
}

impl IntoInner<Buf> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn into_inner(self) -> Buf {
        self.inner
    }
}

impl AsInner<Slice> for OsStr {
    #[inline]
    fn as_inner(&self) -> &Slice {
        &self.inner
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_from_str", since = "1.45.0")]
impl FromStr for OsString {
    type Err = core::convert::Infallible;

    #[inline]
    fn from_str(s: &str) -> Result<Self, Self::Err> {
        Ok(OsString::from(s))
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_extend", since = "1.52.0")]
impl Extend<OsString> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn extend<T: IntoIterator<Item = OsString>>(&mut self, iter: T) {
        for s in iter {
            self.push(&s);
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_extend", since = "1.52.0")]
impl<'a> Extend<&'a OsStr> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn extend<T: IntoIterator<Item = &'a OsStr>>(&mut self, iter: T) {
        for s in iter {
            self.push(s);
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_extend", since = "1.52.0")]
impl<'a> Extend<Cow<'a, OsStr>> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn extend<T: IntoIterator<Item = Cow<'a, OsStr>>>(&mut self, iter: T) {
        for s in iter {
            self.push(&s);
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_extend", since = "1.52.0")]
impl FromIterator<OsString> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn from_iter<I: IntoIterator<Item = OsString>>(iter: I) -> Self {
        let mut iterator = iter.into_iter();

        // 因为我们正在对 `OsString`s 进行迭代,所以我们可以通过从迭代器中获取第一个字符串,并将所有后续字符串追加到该字符串来避免至少一次分配。
        //
        //
        match iterator.next() {
            None => OsString::new(),
            Some(mut buf) => {
                buf.extend(iterator);
                buf
            }
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_extend", since = "1.52.0")]
impl<'a> FromIterator<&'a OsStr> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn from_iter<I: IntoIterator<Item = &'a OsStr>>(iter: I) -> Self {
        let mut buf = Self::new();
        for s in iter {
            buf.push(s);
        }
        buf
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "osstring_extend", since = "1.52.0")]
impl<'a> FromIterator<Cow<'a, OsStr>> for OsString {
    #[inline]
    fn from_iter<I: IntoIterator<Item = Cow<'a, OsStr>>>(iter: I) -> Self {
        let mut iterator = iter.into_iter();

        // 因为我们正在迭代 `OsString`s,所以我们可以通过从迭代器中获取第一个拥有所有权的字符串,并将所有后续字符串追加到该字符串来避免至少一次分配。
        //
        //
        match iterator.next() {
            None => OsString::new(),
            Some(Cow::Owned(mut buf)) => {
                buf.extend(iterator);
                buf
            }
            Some(Cow::Borrowed(buf)) => {
                let mut buf = OsString::from(buf);
                buf.extend(iterator);
                buf
            }
        }
    }
}