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#[cfg(test)]
mod tests;

use crate::io::prelude::*;

use crate::cmp;
use crate::io::{self, Error, ErrorKind, Initializer, IoSlice, IoSliceMut, SeekFrom};

use core::convert::TryInto;

/// `Cursor` 包装内存中的缓冲区,并为其提供 [`Seek`] 实现。
///
/// `Cursor`s 与内存缓冲区一起使用,任何实现 <code>[AsRef]<\[u8]></code>,以允许它们实现 [`Read`] 或者 [`Write`],从而允许这些缓冲区在您可能使用进行实际 I/O 的读取器或写入器的任何地方使用。
///
///
/// 标准库在通常用作缓冲区的各种类型上实现了一些 I/O traits,例如 <code>Cursor<[Vec]\<u8>></code> and <code>Cursor<[&\[u8\]][bytes]></code>。
///
/// # Examples
///
/// 我们可能想在生产代码中将字节写入 [`File`],但在测试中使用内存缓冲区。我们可以做到这一点
/// `Cursor`:
///
/// [bytes]: crate::slice "slice"
/// [`File`]: crate::fs::File
///
/// ```no_run
/// use std::io::prelude::*;
/// use std::io::{self, SeekFrom};
/// use std::fs::File;
///
/// // 我们编写的库函数
/// fn write_ten_bytes_at_end<W: Write + Seek>(writer: &mut W) -> io::Result<()> {
///     writer.seek(SeekFrom::End(-10))?;
///
///     for i in 0..10 {
///         writer.write(&[i])?;
///     }
///
///     // 一切顺利
///     Ok(())
/// }
///
/// # fn foo() -> io::Result<()> {
/// // 这是一些使用此库函数的代码。
/////
/// // 我们可能想在此处使用 BufReader 来提高效率,但让我们继续关注此示例。
/////
/// let mut file = File::create("foo.txt")?;
///
/// write_ten_bytes_at_end(&mut file)?;
/// # Ok(())
/// # }
///
/// // 现在让我们编写一个测试
/// #[test]
/// fn test_writes_bytes() {
///     // 设置一个真实的文件要比内存中的缓冲区慢得多,让我们用游标代替
/////
///     use std::io::Cursor;
///     let mut buff = Cursor::new(vec![0; 15]);
///
///     write_ten_bytes_at_end(&mut buff).unwrap();
///
///     assert_eq!(&buff.get_ref()[5..15], &[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]);
/// }
/// ```
///
///
///
///
///
///
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
#[derive(Debug, Default, Eq, PartialEq)]
pub struct Cursor<T> {
    inner: T,
    pos: u64,
}

impl<T> Cursor<T> {
    /// 创建一个新的游标来包装所提供的底层内存缓冲区。
    ///
    /// 即使底层缓冲区 (例如 [`Vec`]) 不为空,游标的初始位置也为 `0`。
    /// 因此,写入游标是从覆盖 [`Vec`] 内容开始的,而不是追加到它的上面。
    ///
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let buff = Cursor::new(Vec::new());
    /// # fn force_inference(_: &Cursor<Vec<u8>>) {}
    /// # force_inference(&buff);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[rustc_const_unstable(feature = "const_io_structs", issue = "78812")]
    pub const fn new(inner: T) -> Cursor<T> {
        Cursor { pos: 0, inner }
    }

    /// 消费这个游标,返回底层值。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let buff = Cursor::new(Vec::new());
    /// # fn force_inference(_: &Cursor<Vec<u8>>) {}
    /// # force_inference(&buff);
    ///
    /// let vec = buff.into_inner();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn into_inner(self) -> T {
        self.inner
    }

    /// 获取此游标中的底层值的引用。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let buff = Cursor::new(Vec::new());
    /// # fn force_inference(_: &Cursor<Vec<u8>>) {}
    /// # force_inference(&buff);
    ///
    /// let reference = buff.get_ref();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[rustc_const_unstable(feature = "const_io_structs", issue = "78812")]
    pub const fn get_ref(&self) -> &T {
        &self.inner
    }

    /// 获取此游标中底层值的可变引用。
    ///
    /// 应注意避免修改底层值的内部 I/O 状态,因为它可能破坏此游标的位置。
    ///
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let mut buff = Cursor::new(Vec::new());
    /// # fn force_inference(_: &Cursor<Vec<u8>>) {}
    /// # force_inference(&buff);
    ///
    /// let reference = buff.get_mut();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T {
        &mut self.inner
    }

    /// 返回此游标的当前位置。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    /// use std::io::prelude::*;
    /// use std::io::SeekFrom;
    ///
    /// let mut buff = Cursor::new(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(buff.position(), 0);
    ///
    /// buff.seek(SeekFrom::Current(2)).unwrap();
    /// assert_eq!(buff.position(), 2);
    ///
    /// buff.seek(SeekFrom::Current(-1)).unwrap();
    /// assert_eq!(buff.position(), 1);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[rustc_const_unstable(feature = "const_io_structs", issue = "78812")]
    pub const fn position(&self) -> u64 {
        self.pos
    }

    /// 设置此游标的位置。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let mut buff = Cursor::new(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(buff.position(), 0);
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(2);
    /// assert_eq!(buff.position(), 2);
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(4);
    /// assert_eq!(buff.position(), 4);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn set_position(&mut self, pos: u64) {
        self.pos = pos;
    }
}

impl<T> Cursor<T>
where
    T: AsRef<[u8]>,
{
    /// 返回剩余的三个。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// #![feature(cursor_remaining)]
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let mut buff = Cursor::new(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(buff.remaining_slice(), &[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(2);
    /// assert_eq!(buff.remaining_slice(), &[3, 4, 5]);
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(4);
    /// assert_eq!(buff.remaining_slice(), &[5]);
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(6);
    /// assert_eq!(buff.remaining_slice(), &[]);
    /// ```
    #[unstable(feature = "cursor_remaining", issue = "86369")]
    pub fn remaining_slice(&self) -> &[u8] {
        let len = self.pos.min(self.inner.as_ref().len() as u64);
        &self.inner.as_ref()[(len as usize)..]
    }

    /// 如果剩余的 3 为空,则返回 `true`。
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// #![feature(cursor_remaining)]
    /// use std::io::Cursor;
    ///
    /// let mut buff = Cursor::new(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(2);
    /// assert!(!buff.is_empty());
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(5);
    /// assert!(buff.is_empty());
    ///
    /// buff.set_position(10);
    /// assert!(buff.is_empty());
    /// ```
    #[unstable(feature = "cursor_remaining", issue = "86369")]
    pub fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
        self.pos >= self.inner.as_ref().len() as u64
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T> Clone for Cursor<T>
where
    T: Clone,
{
    #[inline]
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        Cursor { inner: self.inner.clone(), pos: self.pos }
    }

    #[inline]
    fn clone_from(&mut self, other: &Self) {
        self.inner.clone_from(&other.inner);
        self.pos = other.pos;
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T> io::Seek for Cursor<T>
where
    T: AsRef<[u8]>,
{
    fn seek(&mut self, style: SeekFrom) -> io::Result<u64> {
        let (base_pos, offset) = match style {
            SeekFrom::Start(n) => {
                self.pos = n;
                return Ok(n);
            }
            SeekFrom::End(n) => (self.inner.as_ref().len() as u64, n),
            SeekFrom::Current(n) => (self.pos, n),
        };
        match base_pos.checked_add_signed(offset) {
            Some(n) => {
                self.pos = n;
                Ok(self.pos)
            }
            None => Err(Error::new_const(
                ErrorKind::InvalidInput,
                &"invalid seek to a negative or overflowing position",
            )),
        }
    }

    fn stream_len(&mut self) -> io::Result<u64> {
        Ok(self.inner.as_ref().len() as u64)
    }

    fn stream_position(&mut self) -> io::Result<u64> {
        Ok(self.pos)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T> Read for Cursor<T>
where
    T: AsRef<[u8]>,
{
    fn read(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        let n = Read::read(&mut self.remaining_slice(), buf)?;
        self.pos += n as u64;
        Ok(n)
    }

    fn read_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &mut [IoSliceMut<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        let mut nread = 0;
        for buf in bufs {
            let n = self.read(buf)?;
            nread += n;
            if n < buf.len() {
                break;
            }
        }
        Ok(nread)
    }

    fn is_read_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        true
    }

    fn read_exact(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> io::Result<()> {
        let n = buf.len();
        Read::read_exact(&mut self.remaining_slice(), buf)?;
        self.pos += n as u64;
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    unsafe fn initializer(&self) -> Initializer {
        Initializer::nop()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T> BufRead for Cursor<T>
where
    T: AsRef<[u8]>,
{
    fn fill_buf(&mut self) -> io::Result<&[u8]> {
        Ok(self.remaining_slice())
    }
    fn consume(&mut self, amt: usize) {
        self.pos += amt as u64;
    }
}

// 非调整大小的写实现
#[inline]
fn slice_write(pos_mut: &mut u64, slice: &mut [u8], buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
    let pos = cmp::min(*pos_mut, slice.len() as u64);
    let amt = (&mut slice[(pos as usize)..]).write(buf)?;
    *pos_mut += amt as u64;
    Ok(amt)
}

#[inline]
fn slice_write_vectored(
    pos_mut: &mut u64,
    slice: &mut [u8],
    bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>],
) -> io::Result<usize> {
    let mut nwritten = 0;
    for buf in bufs {
        let n = slice_write(pos_mut, slice, buf)?;
        nwritten += n;
        if n < buf.len() {
            break;
        }
    }
    Ok(nwritten)
}

// 调整写实现的大小
fn vec_write(pos_mut: &mut u64, vec: &mut Vec<u8>, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
    let pos: usize = (*pos_mut).try_into().map_err(|_| {
        Error::new_const(
            ErrorKind::InvalidInput,
            &"cursor position exceeds maximum possible vector length",
        )
    })?;
    // 确保内部缓冲区的大小至少等于当前的大小
    //
    let len = vec.len();
    if len < pos {
        // 使用 `resize`,以便零位填充尽可能高效
        vec.resize(pos, 0);
    }
    // 找出哪些字节将用于覆盖当前存在的内容 (左),以及将追加到末尾的内容 (右)
    //
    {
        let space = vec.len() - pos;
        let (left, right) = buf.split_at(cmp::min(space, buf.len()));
        vec[pos..pos + left.len()].copy_from_slice(left);
        vec.extend_from_slice(right);
    }

    // 让我们前进
    *pos_mut = (pos + buf.len()) as u64;
    Ok(buf.len())
}

fn vec_write_vectored(
    pos_mut: &mut u64,
    vec: &mut Vec<u8>,
    bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>],
) -> io::Result<usize> {
    let mut nwritten = 0;
    for buf in bufs {
        nwritten += vec_write(pos_mut, vec, buf)?;
    }
    Ok(nwritten)
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Write for Cursor<&mut [u8]> {
    #[inline]
    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        slice_write(&mut self.pos, self.inner, buf)
    }

    #[inline]
    fn write_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        slice_write_vectored(&mut self.pos, self.inner, bufs)
    }

    #[inline]
    fn is_write_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        true
    }

    #[inline]
    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cursor_mut_vec", since = "1.25.0")]
impl Write for Cursor<&mut Vec<u8>> {
    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        vec_write(&mut self.pos, self.inner, buf)
    }

    fn write_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        vec_write_vectored(&mut self.pos, self.inner, bufs)
    }

    #[inline]
    fn is_write_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        true
    }

    #[inline]
    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl Write for Cursor<Vec<u8>> {
    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        vec_write(&mut self.pos, &mut self.inner, buf)
    }

    fn write_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        vec_write_vectored(&mut self.pos, &mut self.inner, bufs)
    }

    #[inline]
    fn is_write_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        true
    }

    #[inline]
    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cursor_box_slice", since = "1.5.0")]
impl Write for Cursor<Box<[u8]>> {
    #[inline]
    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        slice_write(&mut self.pos, &mut self.inner, buf)
    }

    #[inline]
    fn write_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        slice_write_vectored(&mut self.pos, &mut self.inner, bufs)
    }

    #[inline]
    fn is_write_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        true
    }

    #[inline]
    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}