Rust is not a particularly original language, with design elements coming from a wide range of sources. Some of these are listed below (including elements that have since been removed):

  • SML, OCaml: algebraic data types, pattern matching, type inference, semicolon statement separation
  • C++: references, RAII, smart pointers, move semantics, monomorphization, memory model
  • ML Kit, Cyclone: region based memory management
  • Haskell (GHC): typeclasses, type families
  • Newsqueak, Alef, Limbo: channels, concurrency
  • Erlang: message passing, thread failure, linked thread failure, lightweight concurrency
  • Swift: optional bindings
  • Scheme: hygienic macros
  • C#: attributes
  • Ruby: closure syntax, block syntax
  • NIL, Hermes: typestate
  • Unicode Annex #31: identifier and pattern syntax